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Big Data Analytics

Logical Extraction Methods

There are two types of logical extraction:

■ Full Extraction
■ Incremental Extraction

Full Extraction

The data is extracted completely from the source system. Because this extraction
reflects all the data currently available on the source system, there's no need to keep
track of changes to the data source since the last successful extraction. The source data will be provided as-is and no additional logical information (for example, timestamps) is necessary on the source site. An example for a full extraction may be an export file of a distinct table or a remote SQL statement scanning the complete source table.

Incremental Extraction
At a specific point in time, only the data that has changed since a well-defined event back in history will be extracted. This event may be the last time of extraction or a more complex business event like the last booking day of a fiscal period. To identify this delta change there must be a possibility to identify all the changed information since this specific time event. This information can be either provided by the source data itself such as an application column, reflecting the last-changed timestamp or a change table where an appropriate additional mechanism keeps track of the changes besides the originating transactions. In most cases, using the latter method means adding extraction logic to the source system

Many data warehouses do not use any change-capture techniques as part of the
extraction process. Instead, entire tables from the source systems are extracted to the data warehouse or staging area, and these tables are compared with a previous extract from the source system to identify the changed data. This approach may not have significant impact on the source systems, but it clearly can place a considerable burden on the data warehouse processes, particularly if the data volumes are large.
Oracle's Change Data Capture (CDC) mechanism can extract and maintain such delta

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